The Evolution of Sex Education in Belgium: From Explicit Films to Virtual Reality
The transition matrix (Table 2) shows a cross-classification of parental and personal educational level. There is a general trend towards upward mobility, with few young adults with only primary education. Even among those with parents who only completed primary education, just 5.5% of the boys and 3.6% of the girls end up with only primary education. Among those with parents with higher education, less than 1% of the boys and girls obtain only primary education. The majority of the young adults finish at least higher secondary education. Two thirds of the boys of parents with higher education also end up in higher education, among girls this amounts to 80.1%. In the next sections the different mobility patterns will be referred to starting with the abbreviation of the parental education, followed by personal education (e.g. PE-HSE: young adult with primary-educated parents who completed higher-secondary education).
Sex Education For Boys And Girls Belgium 1991
Register-based population data normally do not include detailed information on health-related issues. The 2001 census is an exceptionally rich source of information in this respect, including questions on self-rated health and long-term illness and disability. With the data at hand, it is not possible to identify causal relations, but we found strong associations between having a longstanding illness and young-adult mortality, that clearly lowered the association between personal education and young-adult mortality, especially among the primary educated. It is possible that sickness kept them from attaining a higher educational level. But even among this low-educated group, the association with mortality remains significant after inclusion of having a long-standing illness, except for cancer mortality and suicide mortality among women. To account for health selection, we would also need information on health at T1 (the 1991 census) and longitudinal follow-up on health, which was not available.
Community Dent Health 1991 Mar ; 8 ( 1 ) : 25-30 Multi - cultural study of ... of haptoglobin ( HP ) , group specific Belgium : relationship to age and dietary habits .. ... southeast Asian psychiatric patients .. adolescent boys and girls of the native and ... Lond 1991 Jan ; 25 ( 1 ) : 16-20 various sex and age groups of Russians and ...
Sir Dominic Corrigan , in his address as AB & donation to the Anglo - Belgian ... had not raised the standard of education recovered , Calcutta come months ago to ... They will accommodate 400 boys and season of the year .. be awarded , at the ... session .. girls , and the entire cost has been defrayed by friends Peshawar .
a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life There were no reports of the arbitrary or unlawful deprivation of life committed by the Government or its agents. In March the Brussels Chamber of Indictment ruled that five ex-gendarmes (reorganized in 2001 as the federal police) must stand trial for their alleged roles in the 1998 death of Semira Adamu, a Togolese refugee, who died during her forced repatriation. Defendants in the 1991 killing of Andre Cools awaited trial at year's end. b. Disappearance There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The law prohibits such practices, and in general government officials did not employ them. The operations of all police forces were integrated into a federal system and overseen by the Federal Police Council and an anticorruption unit. A delegation from the Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture carried out one of its periodic visits to the country in late 2001. The delegation indicated that it had examined the procedures and means applied during the repatriation by air of foreign nationals, the implementation of the 1990 law on the protection of the mentally ill, and the situation in public establishments for youth protection and reviewed recommendations made after its 1993 and 1997 visits. In October the Government released the delegation's report. It addressed a limited number of allegations of ill-treatment by law enforcement officials, but did not indicate that there were any systemic abuses. The report made recommendations concerning the use of force and means of restraint during involuntary movement of prisoners, while noting that the Government already had taken numerous measures to reduce risks to prisoners. The report's principal concerns were violence between prisoners at Andenne Prison, chronic overcrowding at Antwerp Prison, and the operation of psychiatric care system in prisons. Prison conditions varied: Newer prisons generally met international standards, while some older facilities nearly met international standards despite their Spartan physical conditions and limited resources. Overcrowding was a problem. In December the prison system, which was designed to hold 7,759 prisoners, held 8,673 prisoners according to government figures. However, construction projects that started during the year were expected to expand the prison system capacity by 870 persons. Men and women were held separately. In June the Government established a maximum-security facility for juvenile prisoners and no longer permitted them to be held in adult prisons. Juvenile prisoners routinely were released from detention whenever the maximum-security facility reached its limit. The Government did not hold convicted criminals and pretrial detainees in separate facilities. Families were allowed to visit prisoners without supervision. Approximately 300 prisoners nearing the end of their sentences lived at home under electronic surveillance at year's end. The Government permitted visits by independent human rights observers, and such visits took place during the year. d. Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile The law prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the Government generally observed these prohibitions. Arrested persons must be brought before a judge within 24 hours. Pretrial confinement was subject to monthly review by a panel of judges, which could extend pretrial detention based on established criteria (e.g., whether, in the court's view, the arrested person would be likely to commit further crimes or attempt to flee if released). At times lengthy pretrial detention was a problem. Bail exists in principle under the law but was granted rarely. In September 37.3 percent of the prison population consisted of pretrial detainees. Pretrial detainees received more privileges than did convicted criminals, such as the right to more frequent family visits. Arrested persons were allowed prompt access to a lawyer of their choosing or, if they could not afford one, to an attorney appointed by the State. Fehriye Erdal, a Kurdish woman accused of involvement in a 1996 terrorist attack in Turkey, remained under house arrest pending trial at year's end. The law prohibits forced exile, and the Government did not employ it. e. Denial of Fair Public Trial The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary, and the Government generally respected this provision in practice. The judicial system was organized according to specialization and territorial jurisdiction, with 5 territorial levels: Canton (225), district (27), provinces and Brussels (11), courts of appeal (5), and the Cour de Cassation, which was the highest appeals court.Military tribunals tried military personnel for common law as well as military crimes. All military tribunals consisted of four military officers and a civilian judge. At the appellate level, the civilian judge presided; a military officer presided at trial. The accused had the right of appeal to a higher military court. Each judicial district had a Labor Court, which dealt with litigation between employers and employees regarding wages, notice, competition clauses, and social security benefits (see Section 6.b.). There was also a magistrate in each district to monitor cases involving religious groups (see Section 2.c.). The law provides for the right to a fair trial, and an independent judiciary generally enforced this right. Charges were stated clearly and formally, and there was a presumption of innocence. All defendants had the right to be present, to have counsel (at public expense if needed), to confront witnesses, to present evidence, and to appeal. The federal prosecutor's office was responsible for prosecuting crimes involving nuclear materials, human trafficking, arms trafficking, human rights violations, and terrorism, as well as crimes against the security of the State. The Summary Trial Act, which covers crimes punishable by 1 to 10 years' imprisonment, allows a prosecutor to issue an arrest warrant for the immediate appearance in court of an offender caught in the act of allegedly committing a crime. The warrant expires after 7 days, and the court must render its verdict within 5 days of the initial hearing. Defense attorneys challenged the summary trial procedures in May before the Cour de Cassation. The court upheld a civil conviction but did not address the summary trial question. Several human rights organizations claimed that summary trial violated the presumption of innocence and jeopardized the right to a full and fair defense. A High Council on Justice supervised the appointment and promotion of magistrates. The Council served as a permanent monitoring board for the entire judicial system and was empowered to hear complaints against individual magistrates. Several government reforms implemented in 1998 granted stronger rights to victims of crime. These measures allowed victims to have more access to information during an investigation, as well as the right to appeal if an investigation does not result in a decision to bring charges. The Government opened Justice Houses in each of the 27 judicial districts. These facilities combined a variety of legal services under one roof, including legal aid, mediation, and victim's assistance. So-called universal competence legislation enacted in 1993 and revised in 1999 provided courts with jurisdiction over war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity, regardless of the location of the alleged crime or perpetrator; however, the Appeals Court ruled in June that the defendant must physically be present in the country before the case could proceed. In 2001 in the first trial based on this law, six Rwandans resident in Belgium were charged with war crimes in connection with the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Four were convicted in 2001; however, in subsequent cases the scope of the law was limited by court rulings. In February the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague ordered the cancellation of a Belgian arrest order for former Democratic Republic of the Congo Foreign Minister Abdulaye Yerodia Ndombas. Citing the immunity of sitting ministers of foreign nations from criminal prosecution in Belgian courts, the ICJ struck down the verdict because Yerodia was in office when he was indicted. In June the Brussels Chamber of Indictment Court dismissed the criminal complaints against Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo, former Ivorian President Robert Guei, and two other former Ivorian Ministers. The court made no reference to the ICJ ruling, but rather noted Article 12 of Belgium's Criminal Procedure Code, which states that for crimes committed outside of Belgium, legal action can only be taken if the suspect is found on Belgian territory. There were no reports of political prisoners. f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence The law prohibits such actions, and the Government generally respected these prohibitions in practice. Section 2. Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: a. Freedom of Speech and Press The law provides for freedom of speech and of the press, and the Government generally respected these rights in practice. An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combined to ensure freedom of speech and of the press. There were restrictions on the press regarding libel, slander, and the advocacy of racial or ethnic discrimination, hate, or violence.Several television and radio stations were subsidized wholly by the linguistic communities, government organizations below the federal level that represented the three official linguistic groups, rather than a geographic area; however, the Government had no official editorial control over content. The potential for political influence existed, as each station's operations were overseen by a board of directors that consisted of representatives of all the main political parties as well as representatives of the linguistic communities. All newspapers were privately owned, and the Government discontinued the direct subsidies formerly paid to them. Almost all homes have access to cable television from other West European countries and elsewhere. Satellite services also were available. The Government did not restrict Internet access.The Government did not restrict academic freedom. b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association The law provides for freedom of assembly and association, and the Government generally respected these rights in practice. Citizens were free to form organizations and establish ties to international bodies; however, the Antiracism Law prohibits membership in organizations that practice discrimination "overtly and repeatedly" (see Section 5). In June military personnel protested wage and other grievances. c. Freedom of Religion The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice. The law accords "recognized" status to Roman Catholicism, Protestantism (including evangelicals), Judaism, Anglicanism, Islam, and Orthodox Christianity (Greek and Russian), and these religions received subsidies from government revenues. Nonconfessional philosophical organizations (laics) served as a seventh recognized "religious" group, and their organizing body, the Central Council of Non-Religious Philosophical Communities of Belgium, received funds and benefits similar to those of the six recognized religions. By law each recognized religion has the right to provide teachers at government expense for religious instruction in schools. For recognized religions, the Government paid the salaries, lodging, and retirement expenses of ministers and also subsidized the construction and renovation of church buildings. The lack of independent recognized status generally did not prevent religious groups from freely practicing their religions, and citizens generally practiced their religion without official harassment or impediment. There was no provision in immigration law for noncitizen members of unrecognized religious groups to travel to the country for the purpose of paid or volunteer religious work, nor was there a provision for them to obtain work permits for that purpose. Nevertheless, the Government established temporary procedures in May by which at least one nonrecognized religious group, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, could bring in members from abroad temporarily to conduct missionary activities. The Government has not taken steps to make these temporary procedures permanent or indicated any intention of amending the law to allow other nonrecognized groups comparable access. Nonrecognized groups did not qualify for government subsidies; however, they could qualify for tax-exempt status as nonprofit organizations. There were no reported legal complaints of religious discrimination during the year. In 1998 Parliament adopted recommendations from a 1997 commission's report on government policy toward sects, particularly sects deemed "harmful" under the law. The report divided sects into two broadly defined categories: It characterized a "sect" as any religious-based organization, and a "harmful sect" as a group that may pose a threat to society or individuals. Attached to the report was a list of 189 sectarian organizations that were mentioned during testimony before the commission. Although the introduction to the list clearly stated that there was no intent to characterize any of the groups as "dangerous," the list quickly became known in the press and to the public as the "dangerous sects" list. This list was not part of the report approved by Parliament. Although the Government stated that it neither recognizes nor utilizes the list associated with its 1997 parliamentary inquiry, some groups continued to complain that their inclusion continued to cause discriminatory action against them. They maintained that the effect of the list was perpetuated by the existence of the Center for Information and Advice on Harmful Sects, a government-sponsored organization charged with monitoring religious groups and providing information about them to the public and the authorities. Although the Center has maintained that the 1997 list has no bearing on its work, the groups on which it focused were among those listed by the parliamentary inquiry. While the Center had no legal authority to declare any religious group harmful, some groups stated that the initial creation of the list, followed by the establishment of an organization that has monitored some groups from the list, caused negative assumptions and guilt by association. The Government's legal case against the Church of Scientology remained unresolved. A complaint by a church member led to a 1999 raid and seizure of church documents. No charges were filed, and the Church tried unsuccessfully to have the seized documents returned. In February the Chamber of Indictment ruled that the Church of Scientology had kept files on its members in violation of the Privacy Act and therefore the Government was under no obligation to return them. The Church subsequently was notified officially that a tax investigation of its nonprofit status that began nearly 5 years earlier also remained open and active. In the spring, there were several ant-Semitic incidents directed at Jewish communities including a number of incidents of arson and assault. Jewish authorities described the atmosphere as hostile and frightening, and the Government deemed a police presence around some synagogues during worship services necessary at year's end. Local police addressed the problem on a case-by-case basis with the various synagogues. In addition, other religious groups complained of societal discrimination, particularly groups that have not been accorded official recognized status by the Government or those associated primarily with immigrant communities. For a more detailed discussion see the 2002 International Religious Freedom Report.d. Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation The law provides for these rights, and the Government generally respected them in practice. The law includes provisions for the granting of asylum and refugee status in accordance with the 1951 U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. The Government cooperates with the office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and other humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees. The Government provided first asylum. During the year, it received more than 18,805 asylum applications, 25 percent fewer than in 2001, and nearly 60 percent fewer than in 2000. Authorities believed that the decline in the rate of applications was primarily due to its discontinuing monthly disbursements of several hundred euros that previously were given to asylum applicants during the lengthy period before each case was closed. Except for an extremely modest incidental allowance, applicants were required to go to open reception centers to receive room, board, and basic services. Approximately 70 percent of all asylum cases were resolved within 8 weeks. The Government reported that